Unless you're keeping it seriously real, things like destitution and starvation will probably be a real shocker on your first trip to a developing country.
However concerned and well read someone might be about 'global wealth distribution' or other similar issues, being confronted with the reality is totally different from dealing with it in the abstract - and the first reaction will always be guilt.
Some would say that enjoying ourselves and tourism in a poor country is wrong and totally out of place amid suffering and poverty, and that by exploiting such we get a cheaper trip. However, given that about fifteen percent of global jobs are tourism based (the world's biggest industry) and of those, the jobs that are most needed (those in the developing world and more 'exotic' destinations) are the smallest share. The developing world desperately needs your money - go spend it wisely!
The benefits of travel are self-evident for both host and traveller, but also comes with unseen downsides (like pollution caused by air travel) but individual choices and awareness can make a difference. The following considerations are solely a few ideas, but please always keep them in mind:
Be considerate - you are a guest in someone else's home [country]. The two biggest sins are: pointing a camera in someone's face - always ask, and forgetting local norms and behavior, especially dressing inappropriately for local cultures and situations.
Don't waste - use water and electricity carefully these are scarcer resources than you might imagine in many places - travelers may receive preferential supply while locals are overlooked.
Don't be stupid - and buy souvenirs or goods made from wildlife, no matter how cool-looking, unless they are clearly sustainable. The same goes with removing antiquities.
Think - about the consequences of getting involved in illegal activities such as drugs or prostitution, you are supporting an industry that ends in misery for many.
Support - Local businesses and traditional skills. Spend money on locally produced (rather than imported) goods and consider staying in local accommodation.
Be kind - to wildlife, people and your environment. If you are a smoker, please take your butts with you when you leave a beautiful place.
Humor - try to deal with minor irritations with humor rather than being too assertive or worse, aggressive.